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The definition of a ‘consumer’ for the consumer guarantees in the Australian Consumer Law (ACL) has changed since 1 July 2021.  A large number of commercial transactions are now subjected to additional regulation. This article discusses:

  • what the ACL and the consumer guarantees are;
  • the impact of changes to the ACL on Australian businesses; and 
  • some practical considerations for businesses to ensure that they are compliant with the ACL.

What is the Australian Consumer Law and Consumer Guarantees?

The ACL is a national law that regulates how businesses can sell goods and services to consumers. Therefore, the ACL contains many important features, including:

  • preventing unfair contract terms in certain types of contracts;
  • a national product safety law and enforcement system; and 
  • the consumer guarantees.

The consumer guarantees provide any consumer with a basic level of protection in relation to goods and services that they purchase in Australia. For instance, some of the consumer guarantees in relation to goods include that the goods are:

  • of acceptable quality; and 
  • fit for any purpose specified by a particular consumer to the seller. 

Subsequently, in relation to services, some of the consumer guarantees include that the services are provided:

  • with due care and skill; and 
  • within a reasonable time (where you have not agreed to a specific time).

Additionally, if a business fails to provide goods and services consistent with the consumer guarantees, the consumer has the right to a remedy. This is typically a:

  • repair;
  • replacement; or 
  • refund.

Excluding Guarantees or Warranties

Importantly, you cannot exclude the consumer guarantees by a contract. 

For example, even if your customer terms and conditions state that there are no refunds permitted in any circumstances, the customer will still be entitled to a refund. This is because the consumer’s rights under the ACL trump any contrary contractual clauses. 

Furthermore, the ACCC can fine businesses that misrepresent a consumer’s rights by making representations (including in terms and conditions, advertising and packaging) that are inconsistent with the consumer’s ACL rights. Generally, these fines could be for breaching ACL provisions on:

  • misleading and deceptive conduct or 
  • false and misleading claims.

The ACL also mandates that any warranties you provide must be in addition to the consumer’s rights under the ACL.

For example, a two-year manufacturer’s warranty, or a three-year replacement guarantee must contain specific mandatory wording. This wording must effectively inform the consumer that they also have rights under the ACL that the warranty cannot exclude or replace.

The consumer guarantees do not apply to all types of transactions. Separate regimes govern financial products and services, as well as insurance contracts. Further, some other types of transactions that the consumer guarantees exclude include those for:

  • the transportation or storage of business goods; or
  • goods costumers purchase to then transform into a product and on-sell it.

What Are the Changes to the ACL and Consumer Guarantees?

The consumer guarantees now apply to consumer transactions that include:

  1. purchases for goods and services (other than excluded transactions as discussed above) less than $100,000; or
  2. purchases for goods and services greater than $100,000 if the goods or services are of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption. This is unless they are goods purchased for resale (such as wholesale goods purchased for retail sale).

The changes to the ACL in July 2021 have increased this monetary threshold from $40,000 to $100,000. Considering that the $40,000 threshold was imposed in 1986, the increase to $100,000 is roughly in line with inflation.

Impact for Australian Business

Consequently, the sector of Australian businesses that are heavily impacted by the change are those that engage in business to business transactions between $40,000 and $100,000. Whereas previously, business to business transactions between $40,000 and $100,000 were largely excluded from the consumer guarantees, now they are largely included. 

Additionally, the impact of the consumer guarantees covering these transactions is that purchasers have additional rights. Therefore, sellers must have a greater awareness of the regulatory framework and ensure that all communications and representations are compliant with the ACL.

Businesses should take steps to ensure that they are compliant with the changes by:

  • reviewing all commercial contracts to ensure that they are consistent with the ACL and do not misrepresent the consumer’s rights;
  • training staff who deal with customers on any new rights that the customers may have;
  • reviewing the quality of goods and services to make sure they comply with the consumer guarantees;
  • considering seeking additional protection in commercial contracts with manufacturers; and 
  • making sure all packaging and advertising are compliant with the ACL (especially where any additional warranty is provided).

Key Takeaways

The change to the ACL that increased the monetary threshold for the definition of a consumer from $40,000 to $100,000 has seen many more transactions subject to the consumer guarantees. Additionally, purchasers of business to business transactions from $40,000 – $100,000 now have additional rights, and sellers in this bracket can face penalties for: 

  • misrepresenting consumer rights; or
  • advertising in a way that is not compliant with the ACL.

Businesses should ensure that they are compliant with the changes. If you have any questions, contact LegalVision’s commercial lawyers on 1300 544 755 or fill out the form on this page.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a consumer guarantee?

Consumer guarantees are a minimum standard for goods and services that are mandated by law. 

Can you exclude the consumer guarantees?

No, you cannot exclude the guarantees by a contract. Additionally, any warranties you provide must be in addition to the consumer’s rights under the ACL.


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